The Boreal Arrow 

Code BA11102320: Antique Georgian Compass by Nairne & Blunt, c. 1775-1793

This fine 18th century compass is signed on the mahogany case NAIRNE & BLUNT LONDON. Thomas Blunt & Edward Nairne became partners in 1775 and their partnership lasted up until 1793. After this date, Blunt continued to make instruments with T Blunt Cornhill London as his signature. The following is an extract from Wikipedia (

Edward Nairne b. Sandwich, England, 1726; d. London, 1 September 1806, was an optician and scientific instrument maker. He was apprenticed to the optician Matthew Loft in 1741 and established his own business at 20 Cornhill in London after Loft's death in 1748. In 1774 he took his apprentice Thomas Blunt into partnership, a relationship that lasted until 1793 when Blunt opened his own shop at 22 Cornhill.

Nairne patented several electrical machines, including an electrostatic generator consisting of a glass cylinder mounted on glass insulators; the device can supply either positive or negative electricity, and was intended for medicinal use. In the eighth edition of the instruction manual for this device he claimed that "electricity is almost a specific in some disorders, and deserves to be held in the highest estimation for its efficacy in many others". He recommended its use for nervous disorders, bruises, burns, scales, bloodshot eyes, toothache, sciatica, epilepsy, hysteria, agues and so on. He also made improvements to the Cuff microscope, building it into a portable case and calling it a chest microscope.

In the early 1770s, Edward Nairne constructed the first successful marine barometer by constricting the glass tube between the cistern and register plate. The instrument was suspended from gimbals mounted within a freestanding frame to provide additional stability. Nairne’s first marine barometer was sent on James Cook’s second voyage to the South Pacific.

One of the earliest references to rubber in Europe appears to be in 1770, when Edward Nairne was selling cubes of natural rubber at his shop at 20 Cornhill. The cubes, meant to be erasers, sold for the astonishingly high price of 3 shillings per half-inch cube. Nairne is credited with creating the first rubber eraser. Prior to using rubber, breadcrumbs were used as erasers. Nairne says he inadvertently picked up a piece of rubber instead of breadcrumbs, discovered its erasing properties, and began selling rubber erasers.

Nairne was a regular contributor to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, and was elected a fellow of that institution in 1776. He enjoyed an extensive international reputation, and was in correspondence with Benjamin Franklin for whom he made a set of magnets and a telescope around 1758. Also on Franklin's recommendation, he was asked to supply instruments for the fire-damaged collection at Harvard.

You can also view more instrument's by these makers at the National Maritime Museum. This compass dates from between the above mentioned dates 1775-1793. The case is mahogany with hook & screw closure, it also features a transit lock. The paper compass dial has an unusual design with graduation every 1 degree and numerals in quadrants every 10 degrees, starting from 0-90 from North to East, then decreasing from 90-0 East to South. The same pattern is then repeated on the other compass points, as well as the silvered brass outer dial. The compass measures 10.5cm x 10.5cm. The last picture was taken next to a 4.7cm Short & Mason compass just to appreciate its large size. The condition is excellent for a instrument over 200 years old. This compass is to be considered rare, and should appeal to the connoisseur collector of maritime and scientific instruments of the Georgian period.